“Traditionally, television studies have been resolutely national, focusing on
a medium contained within the regulatory, political, and economic environs
of the nation-state. International media studies maintained a similar respect
for state sovereignty attending to the exchange of cultural products between
nations or producing comparative studies of national media systems. More
recently, however, scholars are relinquishing the metaphor of national
containers, choosing instead to examine the ways in which contemporary
television is transcending frontiers and disrupting conventional structures
of domination” (Curtin, 2003)
Next to Hollywood, Hong Kong holds the next biggest television industry with over 200 channels being broadcast to over millions of people. The Chinese government is often criticised for its heavy censorship of media coming in and out of China, for example, a limit of twenty foreign films can be shown each year. Regardless of this, people are going on-line to find foreign media and simultaneously sharing local media, creating a two way media flow into and just as importantly, out of China.
Looking Through The Patriot Lens
From early Disney to modern news propaganda, western media has failed to accurately portray non-western cultures accurately. One would argue that globalisation has influenced the worlds interpretation of ‘foreign’ culture to be more sensitive and accepting but when western culture undergoes cultural imperialism over other cultures, it’s hard not to compare the east to what can be considered as ‘social norm’ in the west.
During 2012 there were two rape cases on the news, not far apart chronically but geographically, one was in Delhi, India and the other Steubenville, U.S. In the Steubenville case, culprits were sympathised with to protect ideals of ‘innocent western youth’. Alternatively, the Delhi case was reported quite crudely, implying the culprits in this case were ‘animals’.
One sided media flow has the effect to create a one sided image of cultures holding dominant ideal over others.
Let’s Not All Play The Blame Game
As some would point out , America has a bad case of victim blaming culture especially when considering rape cases. in the December of 2012, two young footballers raped and defamed a young female student. In the light of this, news networks were slammed for ‘sympathising’ with the culprits and identifying the victim as being part of the cause. While the girl was identified as ‘drunken’ and without name, the culprits on the other hand where labelled ‘stars’, ‘promising’ and ‘sorry’. One of the major news networks guilty of this victim blaming was CNN. Consider the following news clip.
In The Wake of a Colossal Media Capital
1993 saw Rupert Murdoch become the major share holder of Star TV, the number two broadcasting network in Asia, this includes Star TV India. Following this, a deal was struck so Star TV India had limited broadcasting in the local Hindi language paving the way for a flow of western media to the east. As we have established a media flows can propagate the establishment of a new media capital
In India, a young Delhi, University student was gang raped on a bus. Thus despicable crime was broadcast all over Indian television in a relatively ‘mature’ way, implying that India’s media industry is trying to be taken seriously. This case and its subsequent news broadcasts raised awareness of abuse against women in India and brought to the attention of the public a sexual assault bill that did not criminalize marital rape.
From this, we can observe that the development of a media capital can be beneficial to the local culture and society as well as support social reform for the better.